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Las Redes Ad-Hoc Vehiculares (VANETs, por sus siglas en inglés) es un tipo de red en la cual los nodos son representados por vehículos, dichas redes tienen el potencial de habilitar aplicaciones para la seguridad en el tráfico, la eficiencia en el transporte y movilidad sostenible. En VANETs existen tres tipos de componentes:

  1. RSU (Road Side Unit, por sus siglas en inglés) las cuales pueden comunicarse entre ellas y servir como puerta de enlace a Internet para los vehículos.
  2. OBU (On Board Unit, por sus siglas en inglés) la cual se encuentra en los vehículos y permite que este se comunique con su entorno y con las RSUs.
  3. AU (Application Unit, por sus siglas en inglés) hacen referencia a los dispositivos que muestran información al usuario.

Tipos de comunicaciones VANETs

En una red vehicular existen tres tipos de comunicaciones:

  1. Vehículo a Vehículo (V2V).
  2. Vehículo a Carretera (V2R) o Vehículo a Infraestructura (V2I).
  3. Infraestructura a Infraestructura (I2I).

En la siguiente figura se ilustra una red VANETs donde se observan los componentes y los tipos de comunicaciones.

Los componentes y los tipos de comunicación en VANETs

Arquitectura

La arquitectura difiere según el consorcio. Los estándares IEEE 1471-2000 e ISO/IEC 42010 la divide en tres dominios: móvil, infraestructura y genérico, cada uno se divide en subdominio como se ilustra a continuación.

Arquitecturas de las VANETs según los consorcios

El dominio de los vehículos abarca todos los tipos de vehículos como coches y autobuses. El los dispositivos móviles abarca todos los tipos de dispositivos móviles como los teléfonos y las tabletas. El genérico abarca todo lo relacionado con el internet. De Roadside abarca todas las entidades que están en las carreteras como las luces de tráfico, entre otros. El dominio central abarca todo lo relacionado con la parte de administración de la infraestructura como lo centros de administración del tráfico y los centros de administración de los vehículos.

Según el Consorcio de Comunicación Vehículo-a-Vehículo (C2C-CC, por sus siglas en inglés) el cual es el líder en la arquitectura de la comunicación vehicular, la arquitectura de las VANETs tiene tres dominios: en-el-vehículo, ad-hoc e infraestructura.

Estándares de VANETs

Los estándares IEEE 802.11p e IEEE 1609 definen el Acceso Inalámbrico en Ambientes Vehiculares (WAVE, por sus siglas en inglés). WAVE proporciona una arquitectura para las comunicaciones V2X, destinada al uso de aplicaciones de seguridad y eficiencia vial.

IEEE 802.11p
El estándar IEEE 802.11p define las características de la capa física y el Control de Acceso al Medio (MAC, por sus siglas en inglés) necesarias para operar en un ambiente vehicular. La capa física utiliza la Multiplexación por División Ortogonal de Frecuencia (OFDM, por sus siglas en inglés).

IEEE 1609
Los estándares IEEE 1609 definen los aspectos de operación y gestión de la capa de red, de transporte y de aplicación de la arquitectura WAVE. Se subdivide en: 1609.1, 1609.2, 1609.13 y 1609.4.

Uso de VANETs

En el ámbito de los Sistemas Inteligentes de Transporte(ITS, por sus siglas en inglés) las VANETs tienen muchas aplicaciones las cuales incluyen seguridad vial, eficiencia vial y comercios e información. A continuación, se describe cada una de las aplicaciones.
Seguridad vial: Las aplicaciones de seguridad vial tienen como propósito reducir la probabilidad de los accidentes de tránsito y disminuir los daños y lesiones causadas por estos. En este escenario, los conductores son notificados con mensajes de alarma asociados a eventos en las carreteras.

Las aplicaciones de seguridad vial se agrupan en tres categorías: 1) prevención de colisiones: las RSUs detectan el riesgo de una colisión entre dos vehículos y advierten a los conductores mediante la OBU. 2) Notificación de señales de tránsito: su función es advertir a los conductores sobre la señalización vial y brindar asistencia. 3) Gestión de incidentes: su función es en caso de un accidente, advertir a los conductores sobre la llegada de ambulancias y el un accidente.

Aplicaciones de eficiencia vial: estas aplicaciones tienen como objetivo mejorar las condiciones del tráfico. Mediante la gestión y el monitoreo del tránsito de los vehículos y las condiciones de las vías de circulación. De acuerdo con su función, las aplicaciones de eficiencia vial pueden ser de dos tipos: gestión y monitoreo del tráfico.

Aplicaciones comerciales y de información: este tipo de aplicaciones se enfocan en brindarle a los usuarios servicios de entretenimiento e información. El entretenimiento ofrece la posibilidad de hacer uso de los recursos de la VANET para fines de recreación a través de puntos de acceso o a través de la red de datos de la telefonía celular. Los usuarios pueden navegar en internet, jugar en línea, ver contenidos multimedia, entre otros. La información ofrece a los conductores información sobre sitios de interés, atracciones locales y servicios basados en localización. Algunos ejemplos del uso de este tipo de aplicaciones es actualización y descarga de mapas de tráfico, ubicación y reserva de estacionamiento.

¡No olvides mostrar tu apoyo dejando un “Me gusta”!

Acerca del autor

Saintus Zephir

Ingeniero en Sistemas Computacionales y estudiante de Maestría en Ciencias en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Computacionales en el Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN).

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